Military Establishment of Upper Canada
Black Powder, Tactical & Encampment
safety regulations are intended to ensure that events and activities
remain a safe and valuable part of the Historic Military Establishment of
Upper Canada. (HMEUC)
regulations are to govern the conduct of current members and outside
groups or individuals using black powder
weapons, participating in tactical demonstrations/battle re-enactments and
encampment activities planned and organized by the HMEUC.
- The HMEUC board of directors will appoint a Safety
Officer that will be responsible for the enforcement of black powder,
tactical and encampment safety regulations which involve activities and
special events sanctioned by the HMEUC.
- The appointed
Safety Officer should have at least three years experience in handling,
firing and demonstrating historic weapons and handling of black powder.
Safety Officer shall have the authority to assign assistant Safety
Officers during special events and activities to aid in ensuring that
proper safety procedures are being upheld.
Safety Officer and assigned assistants will ensure the prevention of any
activity taking place, which by virtue of their training and experience,
they determine to be unsafe.
Safety Officer and assigned assistants must be trained and experienced in
the safe handling of the appropriate class of historic weapons, black
powder handling and the type of activities to be carried out during HMEUC
activities and special events.
appropriately trained and knowledgeable people are permitted to handle
historic weapons or ammunition, or to participate in historic weapons
activities. It is the
responsibility of the Safety Officer and assigned assistants to interview
any participant unknown to the HMEUC or suspected of safety violations and
verifies their level of training and knowledge.
- The Safety
Officer will assign the appropriate number of competent assistants devoted
exclusively to the supervision of activities during tactical
demonstrations and battle simulations.
- The required
number of safety assistants will be determined by the Safety Officer
depending on the scenario and the number of military, artillery, naval,
militia and native units involved.
- The Safety
Officer and assistants have the authority to shut down a battle tactical
or re-enactment demonstration or tactical at any time that deviates from
HMEUC safety regulations.
devoted to the safety of the event will be used exclusively for that
purpose. They will already have their hands full with safety and
supervising activities with re-enactors.
black powder explosives must be transported in accordance with the
Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and any associated regulations and
recommendations made by Transport Canada.
black powder explosives must be stored in accordance with the Explosives
Act and with regulations and recommendations made by the Explosives
Regulatory Division of Natural Resources Canada.
powder should be brought to the event in pre-made cartridges.
should be stored in a secure location and returned there after each
demonstration unless alternate arrangements have been made with HMEUC
will not be prepared at events unless approved by the Safety Officer and
only in approved designated locations.
theft of black powder should be reported immediately to Safety Officer
whether actual, suspected or attempted.
powder is the only approved propellant at HMEUC events and activities.
cartridges for small arms will be of paper, rolled in an 18th
or 19th century manner, folded or tied, without staples, glue
cartridges for artillery will be made of a double wrapped heavy-duty
aluminum foil, rolled and formed with a distinct bottom and top.
Triple wrap is preferred for larger caliber guns over 3lbs.
used for musket cartridges must be heavy enough to withstand damage before
use or accidental ignition by stray sparks.
Facial or toilet tissue and newspaper are not acceptable.
for flintlock muskets should not exceed 120
grains of black powder.
ACTIVIITES &TACTICAL DEMONSTRATIONS
weapons activities and tactical demonstrations may only be carried out
with the knowledge and express permission of the Safety Officer.
by field commanders, senior N.C.O.’s or a unit representative at
briefing sessions is mandatory. Any
unit that does not send a representative will not be allowed to take part
in any tactical demonstrations or battle re-enactments.
safety of the audience and participants is paramount and will be the
governing factor in determining the location and extent of tactical
demonstrations and battle re-enactments.
individual participants must be part of an organized living history or
re-enactment unit. Individuals
who are not part of an organized living history or re-enactment unit must
report to the Safety Officer for a weapons inspection and safety review.
Where possible individuals will be placed with existing units that agree
to take them under their command. If
no organized unit will accept responsibility for an individual,
participation is not guaranteed.
any opposed side demonstration, all weapons will not be deliberately aimed
at “opposing” forces.
will cease within a minimum of 25 meters of two opposing sides.
will be lowered to a forty-five degree angle towards the ground when
opposing forces are within 30 meters or when a situation would dictate for
objects or projectiles may be thrown during opposed side demonstrations.
weapon is to be discharged towards of over the audience.
ending a demonstration must conduct a safety check to ensure that all
firearms are unloaded before leaving a tactical demonstration or battle
units are encouraged to check their area or range for live cartridges and
other potentially harmful objects at the conclusion of all tactical
demonstrations and battle re-enactments.
lines and public viewing areas will be established.
Artificial barriers such as rope or tape will be used to mark these
lines and wherever possible will coincide with natural features.
No unit or individual may cross the safety lines or public viewing
areas for any reason at any time during a tactical demonstration or
reproduction historic firearms will be fired at events held or organized
by the HMEUC.
are not to be used during any opposed line tacticals.
projectiles or wadding is to be fired from muskets at any time.
minimum age to carry and use a historic weapon in a historic weapons
activity is 14 years of age under proper supervision.
MOUNTED UNITS AND CALVARY
mounted units must keep their horses under control and secure at all times
mounted units that have battle trained horses will be allowed to
participate in tactical demonstrations and re-enactments.
units that demonstrate a tendency to bolt, become scared or frightened
during tactical demonstrations and re-enactments will
be removed and barred from future HMEUC activities and events.
hand-to-hand combat must be pre-approved by the HMEUC Safety Officer.
approved hand-to-hand combat must be pre-planned, practiced and presented
to the Safety Officer ahead of time in order to be potentially approved.
objects or projectiles may be thrown during hand-to-hand demonstrations.
hand combat will only take place either at the beginning or nearing the
end of a tactical demonstration or battle re-enactment.
personal that have practiced the pre-approved hand-to-hand combat scenario
will be allowed to take part. Re-enactors
not included in the practiced scenario will not take part and re-enactors
not part of the practiced scenario will not be engaged.
a tactical demonstration or battle re-enactment hand-to-hand combat will
only commence with the approval of the Safety Officer or appointed
WEAPONS, ACCORTREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
Safety Officer and assigned assistants are responsible for ensuring all
historic weapons are in an acceptable condition for the activity or events
equipment and accouterments should be of good working and safe condition.
edged weapons shall have appropriate sheaths or protective covers.
horns must no be used for loading and cannot contain powder at any time.
including bows and arrows, tomahawks and crossbows of any type may only be
used on an appropriate range or area approved by the Safety Officer.
the absence of specific regulations for certain types of historic weapons
it is the responsibility of the Safety Officer to ensure the activity can
be carried out with the utmost safety.
- Only firearms, which pass
inspection by HMEUC safety officials, will be used HMEUC activities and
- Firearms will only use
black powder in pre-made cartridges.
- All firearms used in
tactical demonstrations and activities shall be right handed with the
touch hole discharging to the right.
No left handed muskets with there touch holes discharging to the
left will be permitted at HMEUC events.
- No member of the public
is to handle or fire any firearms.
- No firearm shall be
pointed at another person including visitors or re-enactors, whether
loaded or unloaded. Firearms
will not be discharged towards or over any people except in a supervised
and approved opposed line demonstration.
- All firearms must be
secure at all times, either held in hand or locked away.
- All firearms must have
frizzen covers to prevent accidental discharge.
- Flash guards fitted to
all priming pans are mandatory.
- Ramrods are not to be
used during any opposed line tactical.
- No projectiles or wadding
is to be fired from firearms at any time.
- Only artillery pieces
passed by the HMEUC Safety Officer or assistants will be used during HMEUC
events and activities.
Officers and assistants will inspect its bore
to ensure it does not have pits or crevices that can harbour sparks or
- Under no conditions will an artillery piece
be used by less than two persons.
intervals is once every 2 minutes; there are no exceptions to this rule.
powder in any form must not be placed in the bore until two minutes have
passed from the previous firing.
artillery blank charges will be made of a triple wrapped heavy-duty
aluminum foil, rolled and formed with a distinct bottom and top.
other material can be used for this purpose.
- Only authorized equipment
of good working condition will be used.
The sponge must be covered by sheepskin or wool carpentry with a
significant nap. The sponge
should be well fitted to the bore; it must be able to thoroughly swab the
entire breech of the gun. All
crews must have a spare functional sponge.
A sock on a stick is not acceptable.
- Artillery crews will
double worm and triple swab for all blank firings.
- Priming tubes, quills or
friction primers are the only means used for ignition.
- Artillery that is loaded
or has misfired will remain in position until the situation is resolved.
- All gun crews firing
black powder artillery shall wear only natural fiber, long sleeved outer
garments or uniforms including thumb stalls as protection.
- Use of artillery and
ordnance is the responsibility of the relevant visiting units and they
must ensure that only trained personnel are involved in the firing
procedures and handling of ammunition.
- Earplugs or hearing
protection is strongly recommended.
- Artillery charges will be
prepared according to gun caliber.
STANDARD LOADING SEQUENCE MUZZLE LOADING ARTILLERY
No matter which periods drill is used, the following loading
sequence must be respected at all times:
the bore (twice)
the bore to make sure there are no debris left in the bore
sponge the bore (Three Times)
powder - At least 2 minutes must have elapsed since the
explosion of the previous charge as measured with a watch that can measure
seconds or with a stopwatch.
The following proper techniques must be respected at all times:
twice using a tool with two sharp steel points with coil(s) well sprung.
two complete turns of the worm at the breech each time to pick up any
cartridge remnants and loosen powder residue.
worm should fit closely the diameter of the bore so the points will pick
up debris easily.
the wet sponge against the breech with hand pressure and give two full
rotation of the shaft. Withdraw the sponge half-length, twist, then
re-seat against the breech and give another two rotations.
the sponge. If any powder container remnants or unburned powder comes out
with the sponge, repeat the entire process, starting with step III: Worm.
to the side of the barrel with as much of your body as possible behind the
face of the muzzle.
rammer underhand, with one hand, thumb-to-the-side.
the charge lightly by pushing the rammer smoothly, moving your hand along
the rammer as necessary.
not throw the rammer to seat the charge or pound the rammer against the
feeling the charge reach the breech, remove the rammer, one hand,
no time should more of the body than absolutely necessary be forward of
the muzzle face and never in front of it.
when you absolutely need better control of the rammer, you should not have
both hands on the rammer.
STANDARDS FOR ARTILLERY TOOLS
The following standards for artillery tools must be respected at
all times. Defective or worn-out tools must be replaced immediately before a
demonstration can take place or resume its normal course. Spare tools in good
condition should be available.
sponge must be tight-fitting into the bore of the gun.
head of the sponge must be covered with lambs wool or 100% wool carpeting
with a nap long enough to easily wipe the bore surface and pick up any
small remains of the cartridge.
head must be strongly affixed to a shaft at least one foot longer than the
shape of the head must conform to the shape of the face of the breech
(flat or curved).
worm must have two sharp steel points slightly bent outward with coil(s)
well sprung so they will scrape the face of the breech and easily pick up
worm should fit closely inside the diameter of the bore.
cases where the breech face is curved or has a rounded junction with the
bore walls, the diameter of the worm should be such as to allow it to
reach the face of the breech and not just stop on the junction or shoulder
where the bore becomes the breech face.
AUTHORIZED CHARGES FOR SMOOTH BORE ARTILLERY
charges listed apply to smooth-bore artillery only.
artillery is used, the appropriate maximum authorized charge will be
established as the standard.
listed are maximums. Under no
conditions are they to be exceeded. Smaller
charges are permitted, provided they can be safely handled and fired.
charge for any artillery piece over a 9 pdr not listed herein is 25% of the
historical service charge. Charges for pieces less than 9 lbs. and not listed
must be approved in writing by the Safety Officer.
MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED CHARGE
65 and 60 cwt.
2 lb. 8
52 and 60 cwt.
4 lb. 8
3 lb. 8
3 lb. 8
3 lb. 8
2 lb. 10
63, 58, 56 cwt.
2 lb. 8
50 and 48 cwt.
1 lb. 12
46, 42, 41, 40, 39 cwt.
1 lb. 8
1 lb. 4
50 and 48 cwt.
1 lb. 8
MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED CHARGE
42 to 38 cwt.
1 lb. 8 oz
22 to 20 cwt.
12 pdr. (Iron and
9 pdr. (Iron and bronze)
6 pdr. (Iron and bronze)
1 lb. 12
5 1/2 in.
12 pdr., 6 1/2 cwt.
4 3/4 in., 2 1/2 cwt. Coehorn
2 lb. 4
5 1/2 in. Royal
4 3/4 in. Coehorn
1 lb. 4
distances described herein are based on the assumption that physical
conditions are ideal. It must
be recognized that less-than-ideal physical conditions can create a
dangerous situation, even if the stated distances are observed.
Wind direction, for example, may dictate greater distances between
an artillery piece and adjacent structures in order to prevent roof fires.
sense and a cautious attitude should rule.
diagrams contained herein deal only with the firing of field guns in the
case of artillery.
- Other situations, such as the firing of
garrison guns, or firing small arms in block formation, should be dealt
with on an individual basis. In
such cases, diagrams showing minimum distances to be adhered to should be
researched and approved by the Safety Officer.
The distances specified in the diagrams contained herein can be
used as a guide.
OUTSIDE GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS
is the responsibility of the Safety Officer to ensure that any historic
weapons activities carried out by an outside group or individual conforms
to the standards of safety set by the HMEUC.
field units have the authority to impose stricter safety regulations to
meet their specific requirements
such activities must be under the direct and immediate supervision of a
competent individual, trained on the class of historic weapon being used,
appointed by the historic weapons supervisor.
re-enactment units or individuals that have been invited by the HMEUC,
that have proven their competence, and that have been inspected and
approved by the Safety Officer can participate in a tactical
demonstrations or re-enactment events.
or units that “just show up” at an event or activities without
pre-registering may be barred from participating.
is the responsibility of outside groups and individuals to ensure that
appropriate protective clothing and equipment are designated, provided and
used by those participating in historic weapons activities.
ranges for small arms and artillery described in the safety document will
be respected at all times.
outside groups and individuals who attend and take part in HMEUC
activities and events must hold valid 3rd person liability
insurance. Proof of valid 3rd
person insurance may be required.
groups and individuals who do not hold valid 3rd person
liability insurance will purchase temporary 3rd person
insurance through the HMEUC.
will be a scripted scenario describing the main phases of the battle
re-enactment. All units and
in scripted scenarios are to follow the planned activities to the
best of their ability. Deviations
from the scripted plan must be approved by the Safety Officer and overall
Commanding Officer in charge of the scenario.
groups and individuals must agree to uphold all rules and regulations
outlined in the HMEUC safety regulations.
Outside groups and individuals may be asked to sign a written
contract for certain events and activities.
- Any failure
to comply with the safety rules, criteria and regulations established by
the HMEUC rules contained within this document by an outside group or
individual is to be considered as a major disregard for safety.
Violations or sanctions may be applied.
VIOLATIONS AND SANCTIONS
infractions will be treated seriously.
Any violation of these rules will result in the immediate expulsion
from the event being held or during the remainder of any program in
progress. Any individuals or
units that do not abide by the rules or control their members will not be
invited to future activities and events organized or held by the HMEUC.
is the responsibility of the HMEUC board of directors, upon recommendation
from the Safety Officer, to take proper corrective or disciplinary actions
or sanctions against any individual who does not respect all the
regulations contained in the HMEUC safety rules and regulations.
failure to precisely adhere to timing standards and loading procedures
outlined in the HMEUC safety guidelines and regulations for artillery
firings will be considered a major safety violation and will be subject to
after review, the Safety Officer deems it warranted, they may
recommend to the HMEUC board of directors that the offending outside group
or individual be barred from any future activities or events organized or
held by the HMEUC.
deemed necessary due to the nature of the hazard associated with an
accident or safety violation, the Safety Officer may order the suspension
of any or all related historic weapons activities until the hazardous
condition or safety violation can be corrected.
will not be provided anymore at HMEUC organized events.
Straw is an extreme fire hazard.
Please make other arrangements for bedding if you planned on using
to stay on the Island before the official encampment begins or after it
finishes must be pre-authorized by the HMEUC organizing committee.
- Garbage and recycling will be picked up
at designated spots and times each day.
Times will be provided upon registration. Please have any garbage materials dropped off before
- Please try and keep fire pits to a
minimum and sharing fire pits with other re-enactors is greatly
encouraged. Please save and
replace the grass sod as to help lower the lawn impact on the site.
Please remove garbage and metal before replacing the sod.
- Also remember that no fires should be
left unattended. Any fires
left unattended will be immediately extinguished by park staff or event
animals must be leashed at all times and the leash can be no longer then 2
meters in length. You must
clean up after your pets and dispose of waste in proper ways.
your pet is afraid of loud noises, bites, does not like crowds, or is very
noisy in nature, it is recommended that your pet did not attend.
SMALL ARMS MUSKET INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Date of Inspection________________________
Name of Safety Officer____________________________
Physical Description or Type_________________________
Weapon Serial Number___________________________
The weapon is confirmed to be unloaded by springing the
Your overall first impression favourable.
No cracks or splits.
All inlet items such as butt plates, trigger guards, barrels,
escutcheon plates, etc. should fit tightly with no cracks evident that
would allow powder accumulation.
No burrs on butt plate or trigger guard screw heads that would
snag clothing or hands.
If band springs, they work smoothly (not bound by wood).
If pin-fastened, pins all there, wood not splintered.
No burns around the top of the lock.
Generally, no splinters or rough edges.
Two-piece stocks have sections securely joined.
Lock works smoothly.
The hammer or cock fits tightly on the tumbler.
All the positions are firm and solid.
The half-cock (safety) position works properly.
When trigger pulled, it does no catch on half-cock.
Trigger pull is proper; not too heavy, not "hair" trigger.
If a set trigger, it is adjusted properly and works smoothly.
Lock fits properly into the stock and snugly against the barrel.
The striking face of the percussion hammer is not battered.
It strikes the cap or cone squarely and in the
A flintlock's cock screws works smoothly; jaws grip flint securely.
There is a proper leather or lead flint cap.
The flint is in food condition and set at a proper angle.
The frizzen spring of a flintlock is of the right tension.
The frizzen is in good condition and not gouged.
The pan of a flintlock is clean and in proper relationship to the
touch-hole of the barrel.
Barrel fits the stock properly.
Free from visible dents or cracks.
On flintlocks, the flint is not striking the barrel.
The muzzle is not dented or worn.
The cone of percussion pieces is well-seated and not battered.
The hole is clear and of an acceptable size.
The shoulders are not
On flintlocks, the vent is clear and of an acceptable size.
(Max. 3/32 in.)
No signs of heavy corrosion around the cone.
The sights are complete and operable.
The barrel bands hold the barrel securely.
The ramrod is straight, fits the stock properly, and threads at the
lower end are clean and free of burrs.
Safety Officer reports no problems in using the weapon.
The Bayonet is clean and fits tightly on the barrel of the musket.
(Use back of Sheet if Necessary)
CANNON INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Date of Inspection____________________________________
Name of Safety Officer________________________________
Physical Description or Type____________________________
Weapon Serial Number________________________________
Your overall first impression is favourable.
Barrel is clean and free of rust, corrosion and foreign objects.
No sign of external damage or strain (dents, cracks, etc.)
Inside of the bore is clean and relatively smooth.
No internal signs of damage (bulges, lodgements, pits, etc.)
No sign of corrosion damage at breech of the bore.
The vent is clear, of acceptable size and properly located.
No signs of cracks or bending around the trunnions.
No signs of weakness at the chaplets on bronze barrels.
Wheels are tight and free of rot and insect infestation.
No pieces or parts missing, cracked, bent, or broken.
Wheels move freely.
Elevating mechanism works smoothly and properly.
None of the ironwork is coming loose.
Tube rotates freely on its trunnions.
Trunnion caps fit snugly and are properly keyed.
Lids of side boxes and limber chests fit snugly.
Limber chests and side boxes are clean and free of spilled powder.
Wood generally free of serious checking and splintering.
Linch pin is not digging into wheel hub.
All necessary equipment is present.
Sponge is in good condition and fitted to the bore.
Rammer head is secure and free of cracks.
Smaller items in good condition (lint stock, thumb stall, etc.)
Prongs of the worm are sharp and bent in a manner that allows
effective removal of debris from the barrel.
Charge carrier is clean and free of spilled powder.
(Use back of Sheet if Necessary)
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION GUIDELINES
Safety Officer is responsible for ensuring that an effective accident
investigation is carried out. For
an investigation to be effective, any and all information related to the
accident must be obtained and considered, and a conclusion reached
concerning the causes.
Safety Officer must also ensure that the appropriate remedial actions are
taken to prevent or reduce the risk of a recurrence.
Safety Officer and appointed assistants must carry out their investigation
in as thorough and objective a manner as they can.
Phase I - Actions Following Accident
on the seriousness of the accident, the scene of the accident should be
isolated as much as possible. Any
injured persons should be attended to immediately.
the exact physical situation cannot be maintained for investigation, a
sketch should be prepared and, if possible, photographs taken.
Physical evidence such as historic weapons should be secured and
their condition at the time of the accident maintained.
weapons involved in a black powder accident must not be cleaned or
repaired until the accident investigation is complete.
names and addresses of all witnesses and injured parties should be
the circumstances surrounding the accident constitute and imminent danger
to anyone, the apparent hazard should be removed or the program suspended
without awaiting the final outcome of the investigation.
information should be recorded as soon as possible.
- Date, time and location of accident
- Weather conditions
- Concise narrative description of what took place
- Extent and nature of injuries, property damage and/or
The accident investigation should proceed as soon as possible.
Phase II - Preparation
The Safety Officer and assistants investigating the incident
should ensure that they are thoroughly familiar with the laws, policies,
guidelines, directives and procedures applicable to the situation.
Phase III - Fact-finding
involved in the accident, including witnesses and, if possible, the
injured should be interviewed while events are still fresh in their minds.
personnel should be interviewed individually.
interviews must be recorded in writing or on tape.
directly involved in the accident should be interviewed first, followed by
any other witnesses.
interviewing injured persons, the investigator must obtain assurance that
the interview is medically permissible. Basic information should be
obtained before the interview in order to minimize the strain on the
injured person. If the
injured person's answers vary considerably from known information,
questioning may be inappropriate at that time.
person being interviewed should be reminded of the constructive purpose of
the investigation. The person
should be put at ease and interview conducted in a calm and unbiased
manner. Remember, the purpose
is to get at the facts, not to fix blame.
should be alert to variances from approved procedures, changes in routine,
distractions, etc. - Anything
that may have contributed to the accident.
interviews, examination of records and study of the physical evidence, the
Safety Officer and assistants should attempt to assemble and arrange
information in a way that will allow assessment of the key factors or
components of the accident situation.
the case of an accident during an historic weapons demonstration, the
following components should be examined:
What type is it?
is it in?
When it was last
inspected? What were the results?
How many times
has it been fired?
drawing and photograph, if possible.
What size was
powder was it supposed to contain?
powder did it actually contain?
What was the
container made of?
How old was the
Who prepared the
What means of
ignition was used?
How was the
ignition/priming device made?
was present? (E.g. rammer, etc.)
equipment correct for the weapon?
was the equipment in?
Was the range
clear of obstructions and distractions?
Was the range
Was the correct
Was it followed
to the letter?
Who was in
charge of the demonstration?
have they had?
How many people
Where were they
in relation to the accident?
children present? Were they under
Were members of
the audience smoking?
Who were they?
What was each
individual's exact position when the accident
have they had?
How long have
they worked together as a gun detachment?
trained and certified? By whom?
training had they received?
Do they display
a good knowledge of their responsibilities and of
attitude cautious? Cavalier?
factors which the Investigation Team feels may be
relevant to the accident situation should be studied as well.
Phase IV - Analysis and Conclusions
all relevant information has been collected and organized, it must be
analyzed to identify possible causes of the accident.
Even during the fact-finding phase, the Safety Officer and
assistants should be asking themselves such questions as:
Was there any deviation from normal procedure?
Did the individuals involved display the necessary knowledge,
skill and awareness?
Were there any defects in the weapons, equipment or procedures
Were all the rules followed?
analysis phase involves an intense examination of all the facts in a
search for any factors or conditions that could have contributed to the
accident. Safety Officers and
assistants should avoid the tendency to reinforce preconceptions about
what may have caused the accident, and base their analysis only on
substantiated facts or on the best possible logical assumptions.
potential causes have been identified, the Safety Officer will be in a
position to try to reach a conclusion about what factor or combination of
factors caused this accident?
Safety Officer conclusions should include a clear statement as to whether
or not any law, regulation, policy directive, guideline or approved
procedure was violated.
Safety Officer should also state whether or not any of these, even if
followed, contributed to the accident.
Phase V – Recommendations & Final Report
The Safety Officers recommendations and final report should
address the following questions:
action must be taken to eliminate or reduce the risk of a similar
should distinguish between changes in physical conditions (e.g. weapon,
size of charge, proximity of audience, etc.) and actions (improved
training, changes in a drill, etc.).
should be worded so that they can be acted upon directly and, if possible,
include the specific steps or actions required to carry them out.
investigation is truly complete until its recommendations have been acted
upon and the risk of similar accident eliminated.
final report should follow the general outline used in this Section, i.e.
information gathering, analysis and conclusions, and recommendations.
final report is to be classified and marked as "Confidential".
Its contents are not to be discussed with the media or the public
unless and until specific authorization is granted by the HMEUC board of